Internet protocol or IP is a common term in computer networking. If you’re interested in learning computer networking or network security then you should know about the Internet Protocol and various network protocols. In this blog post, we will discuss IP, its process, its types, and more.
What is IP?
The Internet Protocol is a set of rules for routing and addressing data packets across networks so that they can reach their intended destination. Data that travels over the web is divided into packets.
Each packet includes IP information, which enables routers to send packets to the correct destination. Data arrives where it is needed as packets are routed to the IP address allocated to them by every device or domain that connects to the Internet.
Packets are handled differently once they arrive at their destination depending on whether a transport protocol is used in conjunction with the Internet Protocol. The most extensively used transport protocols are TCP and UDP.
What is a Network Protocol?
In networking, a protocol is a standardized way of executing specified actions and formatting data so that two or more devices may communicate and understand one another.
Consider the procedure of mailing a letter to see why protocols are important. The following order is written on the envelope: name, street address, city, state, and pin code.
The post office will not deliver an envelope that has the pin code put first, then the street address, then the state, and so on. In order for the postal system to function, there is an agreed-upon procedure for writing addresses.
Similarly, all IP data packets must contain specific information in a specific order, and all IP addresses must adhere to a standard format.
What is the Function of IP Addresses?
Understanding how an internet protocol address functions is important if you want to figure out how a device connects to a computer network. Moreover, it helps to troubleshoot when the device is not working the way you expect it to or why your network isn’t working.
Internet protocol communicates in the same manner that every other language does, by following a set of rules. Thus, in a way, we can say that it is a language. This protocol is used by all linked devices to search, send, and share information. By speaking the same language, any computer or device in any location can converse with another.
The Process of Internal Protocol
- Your device connects to the internet indirectly by first connecting to a network that is connected to the internet, which then grants access to your device.
- When you’re at home, that network will most likely be your Internet Service Provider (ISP). At work, it will be your office network.
- Your ISP assigns an IP address to your device.
- Your internet activity is routed through your ISP before being routed back to you via your internet protocol address. Because they are supplying you with internet access, it is their job to provide an IP address to your device.
Your internet protocol address may change. Changing the settings on your modem or router, for example, can make a difference. You can also request that your ISP update it for you.
Your home IP address does not follow you when you leave the house. For example, when you go on vacation. This is because you will be accessing the internet through a different network, such as Wi-Fi at the hotel, airport, or coffee shop. Thus, they will assign you a separate (temporary) address.
Types of IP Addresses
Internet protocol addresses are divided into several categories, each of which comprises several types. Here, we will talk about IP addresses for consumers.
Private IP addresses and public IP addresses are pursued by every individual or company with an active internet service system. The network area is divided into public and private areas. As a result, a private address is used within a network, while the other, a public address, is used outside of it.
1) Individual IP Addresses
Each device linked to your internet network is given a unique internet protocol address. Computers, desktops, laptops, smartphones, tablets, and even Wi-Fi-enabled devices like speakers, printers, and smart TVs can all be connected to it.
The need for private IP addresses in individual homes appears to be increasing as the IoT (internet of things) expands. The router, on the other hand, needs a way to distinguish between these objects.
As a result, your router generates unique private addresses for each device connected to your internet network. As a result, they are distinguished from one another on the network.
2) Public IP Addresses
A public IP address, often known as a primary address, refers to the entire network of devices connected to it. Every device with your primary address has its own unique private address.
Your ISP is responsible for delivering your public IP address to your router. ISPs often maintain a broad pool of addresses from which their customers can choose.
Your public IP address is used by every device outside of your internet network to identify your network. Dynamic and static addresses are the two types of public IP addresses.
1. Dynamic IP Addresses – Addresses that change
Dynamic IP addresses, as the name suggests, change frequently and automatically. Internet service providers already purchase a bulk stock of addresses and assign them to their clients in some order with this type of IP address.
They re-allocate addresses on a regular basis and return the ones that have been utilized to the IP address pool so that they can be used again for another client. The premise for this strategy is for the ISP to achieve cost savings profits.
2. Static IP Addresses – Addresses that do not change
In contrast to dynamic IP addresses, static addresses are permanent. The network only assigns the device an IP address once, and it remains the same.
Although most businesses and people dislike having a static address, it is required for an organization to host its network server. It uses a static IP address to safeguard websites and email accounts that are linked to it.
What is TCP?
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) is a transport protocol that governs how data is transferred and received. Each packet that uses TCP/IP has a TCP header in the data section.
TCP establishes a connection with the destination before sending data. Once transmission begins, the transport protocol ensures that all packets arrive in the correct order.
Each packet that arrives is acknowledged by the recipient via TCP. If reception is not acknowledged, missing packets will be forwarded again.
Mind you, the transmission control protocol is built for consistency, and not speed. Consequently, loading data via the TCP/IP protocol can take longer if some packets are missing since the transport protocol ensures that all packets arrive in order.
Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol were meant to work together, and the TCP/IP suite is sometimes referred to as such. Other transport protocols, however, can also be utilized alongside the Internet Protocol.
What is UDP?
The full form of UDP is User Datagram Protocol. It is another widely used transport protocol. Although it is faster than TCP, it is also less dependable.
UDP does not ensure that all packets are delivered in the correct order, nor does it establish a connection before sending or receiving data.
The Internet Protocol is a set of rules for routing and addressing data packets across networks so that they can reach their intended destination. Data transferred over the web is divided into smaller units, appropriately termed data packets.
Data packets are handled differently once they arrive at their destination depending on whether a transport protocol is used in conjunction with the Internet Protocol.
The most extensively used transport protocols are TCP and UDP. Static IP addresses are permanent, whereas dynamic addresses change frequently and automatically.
A public IP address refers to the entire network of devices connected to it. Every device with your primary address has its own unique private IP address.
TCP is a transport protocol that governs how data is transferred and received. On the contrary, UDP is a transport protocol that is faster but less reliable.