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What is a Database? Components and Types


Databases (DBs) are the backbone of all modern information systems. Since computers store contemporary databases, the data can be of any size and complexity. There are many ways to collect and arrange data depending on the usage and its type.

In this blog, you will get a brief introduction to DBs, why they are important, and how their types differ with the kind of use-case the company has. So, let’s begin.

What is a Database?

A database is a logically connected collection of data that is organized. Databases are designed to make data storage, retrieval, modification, and deletion as well as other data-processing tasks easier. The data in a DB can be transformed into useful knowledge and kept up to date to meet the demands of the user.

A database not only stores the data but also the relationships between the data pieces. Consider your school’s registration in layman’s words. All the information regarding students, teachers, and other staff is saved in files.

Each file contains information on specific students, teachers, or other staff members. This is referred to as a database, and it allows you to access the details of any of them.

MySQL, SQL Server, MongoDB, Oracle Database, PostgreSQL, Informix, and Sybase are some of the most popular database management systems.

A database management system (DBMS) is used to manage the databases. SQL, or Structured Query Language, is a programming language that is used to manipulate data in relational DBs.

Components of a Database

A DB is made up of the following components:

1. Data

The important fact about an item or event that the database may save is called data. Actual data, operational data, and metadata are examples of data that a DBMS collects, stores, accesses, and processes.

To develop meaning and become information, the data must be processed. Furthermore, processing extracts useful information from the data and improves decision-making.

2. Hardware

The physical parts that connect computers to the outside world are referred to as hardware. Electronic devices such as I/O devices, storage devices, and others make up this category.

It also serves as a link between computers and physical systems. When it comes to DBs, the hardware required to run and populate a database includes servers, storage drives, and different data collection devices.

3. Software

The software consists of a variety of programs that allow users to access, manipulate, and control databases. The software on the lower levels includes the operating systems that the databases are installed on, as well as the network that allows the DBs to communicate with each other.

Users can control and manage the DB via a software or application. To administer and govern databases, a DBMS software is employed.

4. Procedure

It is a set of instructions and guidelines for developing and administering a database management system, as well as instructing users on how to use and manage it. The operation and data handling in the DB is determined by these rules.

5. DB Access Language

It’s used to get data into and out of a database. Data present in DBs is used to enter new data, update existing data, or retrieve data.

You can write a set of relevant instructions in the db access language and send them to the DBMS, which subsequently processes and generates the data and shows a set of results in a user-readable format.

Types of Database

1) Relational Databases

In the 1980s, relational databases became the standard. Data items in these DBs are structured into tables having rows and columns. The most effective and versatile approach to accessing structured data is through an RDBMS.

Popular examples of Relational DBs:

2) Object-oriented Databases

These DBs use an object to represent their data. Such databases arose in response to the need for object-oriented programming languages to be coupled with a DB.

Popular examples of Object-oriented DBs:

3) Distributed Databases

A distributed database is made up of two or more files that are stored in different locations. This type of DB could be spread across numerous machines in the same physical area or across multiple networks.

Popular examples of Distributed DBs:

4) Data Warehouses

A data warehouse is a sort of database that is specifically intended for fast query and analysis. It is a central repository for data. It can be evaluated to help you make better decisions.

Data flows inside data warehouses regularly from various sources like transactional systems and relational DBs.

Popular examples of Data Warehouses:

5) NoSQL Databases

Unstructured and semistructured data can be stored and manipulated in a NoSQL database. Hence, NoSQL databases are ideal for dealing with big data.

NoSQL databases are also known as non-relational databases. In contrast to an RDBMS, which defines how all data inserted into the DB must be composed before storing the data, a NoSQL DB allows you to store data first and then design the schema.

As online applications became more prevalent and complicated, NoSQL databases became increasingly popular.

Popular examples of NoSQL DBs:

6) Graph Databases

A graph database stores information in the form of entities and their relationships. Graph databases are used specifically for storing and navigating relationships that are first-class citizens in graph DBs, and they account for the majority of the database’s value.

Nodes are used to store data entities, and edges are used to store relationships between entities in graph databases.

Popular examples of Graph DBs:

7) Open-source Databases

An open-source database is a kind of DB whose source code is available to the public; these databases might be SQL or NoSQL. Neo4j is an open-source graph database written in Java that stores data in graphs rather than tables. It is touted as an integrated, disk-based, fully transactional Java persistence engine.

Popular examples of Open-source DBs:

8) Cloud Databases

A cloud database is a structured or unstructured collection of data stored on a private, public, or hybrid cloud computing platform. It’s a cloud-based service that may be accessed from anywhere.

A cloud DB performs several tasks the same as a traditional database, but with the extra benefit of cloud computing flexibility.

Popular examples of Cloud DBs:

9) Self-driving Databases

Self-driving DBs are the newest and most revolutionary sort of database, also known as autonomous databases. They’re cloud-based, and they utilize artificial intelligence (machine learning, to be specific) to automate tuning, security, backups, upgrades, and other operations that DB managers do.

A self-driving DBMS is one that can gather and analyze its own statistics and workload records in order to optimize itself.

Popular examples of Self-driving DBs:


In this blog, you learned about what a database is and how DBs are used differently in different domains. The amount of data produced every day will never decrease, it will only increase exponentially. So, to handle this data you need a good DBMS to store and use the same smartly.

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